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Outcome Measures

Healthcare has three goals it aims to meet always. These goals are improving the patient experience, improving the health of populations, and reducing costs. Outcome measures is a complex issue for healthcare because of the presence of so much data in the healthcare system. Managing this data effectively requires some skill and managerial process explained here “Outcome measures” is a broad term so here it’ll be defined thoroughly.

According to the World Health Organization, an outcome measure is a change in the health of an individual, group of people or population that is attributable to an intervention or series of intervention. This could include mortality rate, readmission, patient experience, etc. Healthcare organizations constantly seek to meet and improve quality and costs targets.
These outcome measures are frequently reported to the government, investors, and quality auditing organizations that specialize in hospital safety and quality performance. This process ensures a maintenance and increases in transparency among health care providers in order to reduce unwanted outcomes such as mortality, accidents and human errors in hospitals. In addition to the prevention of these negative outcomes, quality measures also help, improve patient experience of care, improve the health of populations and reduce the per capita cost of healthcare.
The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) grouped the various outcome measures into seven categories based on importance
Mortality (22%)
Safety of care (22%)
Readmissions (22%)
Patient experience (22%)
Effectiveness of care (4%)
Timeliness of care (4%)
Efficient use of medical imaging (4%)

Mortality: Mortality rate also known as life expectancy is one of the measures of disease outcome. Measuring the total deaths in a year over the entire population is called crude mortality. There are also other measures of mortality called specific mortality. Some of these specific mortality measures are:
Age-specific mortality rate: this measures the mortality of a specific age group
Sex-specific mortality rate: this measures the mortality of people of a particular gender. I.e all the people who died of that particular sex over all the people of that particular sex.
Disease-specific mortality rate: this measures the mortality of people with a particular disease, but this time over all people in the population
Case-fatality rates: look at the mortality of people dying from a disease over all the people who have that disease. case-fatality measures the severity of that disease
Proportionate mortality: compares the mortality of one cause to all other causes, the numerator is death from a particular cause of death from all possible causes.
Safety of Care: This measure the likelihood of a medical mistake during or after treatment. Common safety of care issues are skin breakdown and hospital acquired infections (HAI)
Readmissions: Readmissions happens a lot and can usually be prevented by proper patient follow-up and communication between patient and health practitioners.
Patient experience: This involves measuring patient experience by asking them to complete a survey for example. This helps the healthcare organization track patient satisfaction to enable improvement and efficiency.
The effectiveness of care: This measures that outcomes are achieved i.e effective and that the best care guidelines are met. If guidelines are not met, it could lead to drastic or even deadly outcomes for patients.
Timeliness of care: This measure the timeliness of care delivery. That is how quickly patients are attended to by a health practitioner. For example measuring the average wait time in an emergency room.
Efficient use of medical imaging: According to the European Science Foundation, “Medical imaging plays a central role in the global healthcare system as it contributes to an improved patient outcome and more cost-efficient healthcare in all major disease entities.”